Cortical Visual Impairment:
An Approach to Assessment and Intervention

By Christine Roman-Lantzy

The current leading cause of visual impairment among children is not a disease or condition of the eyes, but cortical visual impairment (CVI)—also known as cerebral visual impairment—in which visual dysfunction is caused by damage or injury to the brain. The definition, nature, and treatment of CVI are the focus of great concern and widespread debate, and this complex condition poses challenges to professionals and families seeking to support the growth and development of visually impaired children. On the basis of more than 30 years’ experience in working with hundreds of children of all ages with CVI, Christine Roman-Lantzy has developed a set of unique assessment tools and systematic, targeted principles whose use has helped children learn to use their vision more effectively. This one-of-a-kind resource provides readers with both a conceptual framework with which to understand working with CVI and concrete strategies to apply directly in their work.

Cortical Visual Impairment Advanced Principles

By Christine Roman-Lantzy (Editor)

Cortical Visual Impairment: Advanced Principles, the highly anticipated companion book to Cortical Visual Impairment: An Approach to Assessment and Intervention, makes new strides in building knowledge about CVI. The book, a collaboration among experts in several disciplines, dives deeper into topics that are extensions of the original concepts. CVI: Advanced Principles offers an in-depth examination of the needs of students and individuals with CVI in areas such as literacy, social skills, and O&M, while also addressing the demands of students with CVI and other disabilities, such as complex communication needs and hearing loss. The authors consider students with CVI in the context of their entire day to see how the tasks they perform, the interactions they have, and the environments they encounter can be evaluated and adapted to help them build their visual skills and experience success.

Sensory Balance: An Approach to Learning Media Planning for Students with CVI

by Christine Roman-Lantzy and Matt Tietjen

Students with CVI have educational needs that are unique and often distinctly different from those of individuals with ocular forms of visual impairment. “Sensory Balance” refers to the combination of a person’s sensory learning modalities that results in the most efficient, comfortable access to the world. The goal of the Sensory Balance Approach is to make learning media decisions that meet the child’s current needs, and ensure that there are regular, intentional opportunities to develop vision into a more reliable way of learning about the world. The traditional Learning Media Assessment (LMA) is considered best practice for children with ocular visual impairments. When performing the LMA process for children with CVI, evaluators need to consider CVIs unique factors and apply the results through a CVI-conscious lens – which is found in the Sensory Balance Approach (SBA).


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  • Roman, C. A., & Zimmerman, G. J. Mediated learning experiences and the orientation and mobility Process. RE:view, #2, 1994
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  • Roman-Lantzy, C.A., Cortical Visual Impairment:An Approach to Assessment & Intervention, American Foundation for the Blind, NY, 2007.
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  • Roman, C.A., Orientation & Mobility for students with Cortical Visual Impairment. In Blash, B. Wiener, W. Welsh, R. (Eds.) Foundations of Orientation and Mobility. 2010
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  • Roman Lantzy, C. A., Trettel, M. Cortical visual impairment and autism spectrum disorders: Shared behaviors not shared diagnosis. (submitted for review)
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